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THE LIBRARY 

OF 

THE UNIVERSITY 

OF CALIFORNIA 

RIVERSIDE 




Ex Libris 
C. K. OGDEN 



JIT ONE 



Price FIVE SHILLINGS 



Admirals of the 
British Navy 



Portraits in Colours 



By FRANCIS DODD 





With Introduction and Biographical Notes 

PUBLISHED FROM THE OFFICES J» " COUNTRY LIFE " LTD., 
20, TAVISTOCK STREET, COVENT GARDEN, LONDON 

GEORGE NEWNES, LTD., g-li. SOUTHAMPTON STREET, STRAND, 

LONDON, W.C. 



Admirals 



OF THE 



British Navy 



Portraits in Colours by 

FRANCIS DODD 

With Introduction and Biographical Notes 



PUBLISHED FROM THE OFFICES OF " COUiNTRY LIFE," LTD., 

3o. TAVISTOCK STREET, COVENT GARDEN, LONDON; 

AND GEORGE NEWNES, LTD., 8-1 1 , SOUTHAMPTON STREET, 

STRAND, LONDON, W.C. =. 

MCMXVII 



INTRODUCTION 

IF the English are singularly incurious about their Navy, that attitude 
must not be thought to imply neglect. On the contrary, it 
is a blend of admiration, respect, and, above all, confidence, 
induced very largely by the Navy itself. For so long has the 
Navy minded its own silent business that we — otherwise so inquisitive 
a people — have come to look upon it as beyond examination and (normally 
too eager to cut open the drum and explore its resources) trustfully to 
leave it to its own devices, conscious that those devices are wholly in 
our own interests. As Matthew Arnold said in his sonnet to Shakespeare : 

Others abide our question, thou art free — 

so do we address the Navy. For, although it baffles curiosity and ends 
by eliminating it, it is only to substitute faith. We do not take for 
granted all the things that we cannot understand : sometimes, indeed, 
we deny them ; but we are satisfied to take for granted the Navy. We 
know that it is there. Where " there " is we may have no notion ; 
by " there " we mean probably everywhere. The Navy is not only 
there, the Navy is everywhere, and therefore all's well. That is our 
simple creed. 

A further cause for this quiet and unusual acceptivity is to be found 
in the medium in which the Navy works — the sea itself. The sea has 
ever been a barrier to investigation, and the Navy and the sea are one. 
Public opinion is land-made, and landsmen have neither time nor in- 
clination to cope with the riddles of the ocean, which to most of us is 
O vague and inimical, the home of risks and discomforts which it is wiser 



2: 



•^ 






o 






to avoid. Well content to consider her, from a safe distance, as a Sphinx, 



2 we are very happy that to others has fallen the perilous lot of patrolling 



her and very full of gratitude for their courage and success. 



If the Army, on the contrary, is so much under the microscope, 
it is largely because it has few or no mysteries. We know the rules. 
Armies are made up of men like ourselves (only better). They advance 
as we do, by putting one foot before another, on the solid earth. Their 
movements are followable, even if we cannot always understand them ; 
daily bulletins are printed in the public Press. But the Navy keeps 
its secrets. Not only have we no notion where it is, but we should be 
little the wiser as to its inner purposes if, scanning the inimitable and 
capricious waves, it should be our fortune to descry here and there a 
flotilla of its dark grey hulls. Even in harbour most men pointing out a 
cruiser to their children say "That's a dreadnought" — a state of 
confusion bred and fostered by the strange, dark, dangerous element in 
which the Navy has its being. 

So much for the causes of our odd willingness to forego one of 
the chief privileges of British birthright, which is to criticise, even 
to belittling, all that is ours. But there is justification, too, as the state 
of the sea to-day testifies. Thanks to the Navy there is at this moment 
hardly an enemy ship at large on the surface of the waters. The Kaiser's 
darling ironclads are idle as painted ships upon a painted ocean : not even 
an ocean, a canal. Our troops in millions have crossed to the Continent. 
We have enough to eat. 

By what wonders of efficiency and discipline, machinery and 
co-ordination, this result has been brought about we neither know nor 
are concerned to enquire. Enough that it is. But when it comes to 
personnel, curiosity is legitimate ; and this collection of portraits and brief 
biographies has been prepared in the belief that very many of those 
whose lives have been rendered secure by these eff"orts of the Navy 
would like to see what manner of men are in control of our safeguards, 
This is the heyday of the picture, and here are the pictures of our 
leading sailors — the commanders who stand between us and the foe 
and keep the foe at bay. 

Charles Lamb (who was less of a sea-dog even than most men) 
confessed in old age that he once sat to an artist friend for the portraits 
of sixteen British Admirals. Mr. Dodd (even could a sitter of such 
notable companionableness be now found) would have forced himself 



to dispense with the fun of using him, for verisimilitude's sake, because 
all these heads have been drawn from life and are reproduced as nearly 
as possible in the colours of life. Looking over the forty and more 
Naval heroes whom he has limned, one is struck by a generic likeness 
which is deeper than such superficial similarity as the service beard 
can confer. Most of the Admirals look like Admirals — and is there 
a better thing to be .'' Certainly there is no better word. Not only 
have their ability and courage and character united to lift them to high 
position and authority ; but here, again, we discern the subtle and 
penetrating influence of the sea, a mistress who will allow no relaxation 
of vigilance or toil, so swiftly and dangerously changeable can she be. 
Hence the keen eyes, the level gaze, of all who would understand and 
cope with her, and noticeably of all this gallant company. 

In the present work the emphasis is laid rather upon the illustrations 
than the letterpress. It is a gallery of portraits rather than a series 
of biographies such as " The Lives of the British Admirals," which 
was written by Dr. John Campbell, and, with periodical additions, so 
long held the field. The time for such biographies happily is not yet. 
But when it comes may there be some victories (already, of course, there 
are three or four) to record as decisive and as noble as those in Campbell's 
volumes ! 

E. V. LUCAS. 



ADMIRAL SIR JOHN R. JELLICOE, 

G.C.B., O.M., G.C.V.O. 

A DMIRAL SIR JOHN RUSHWORTH JELLICOE, G.C.B., 

/\^ O.M., G.C.V.O., was born on December 5th, 1859. He 

/ ^ was educated at Rottingdean, and entered the Navy in 1872, 

becoming in 1880 a Lieutenant (three First Class Certificates). 

As a young officer he speciahsed in Gunnery. 

During the Egyptian War, as Lieutenant of the " Agincourt," he 
gained the Egyptian Medal and Khedive's Bronze Star. In 1883 he 
received a special 3^80 prize at the Royal Naval College. 

In May, 1886, Lieutenant Jellicoe was awarded the Board of Trade 
Silver Medal for having commanded a gig, manned by volunteers, which 
set out to rescue the crew of a steamer stranded on a sandbank near 
Gibraltar. A heavy sea was running and the boat capsized, but the crew, 
being provided with cork jackets, managed to reach the shore in safety. 

Lieutenant Jellicoe was Assistant to the Director of Naval Ordnance 
from 1888 to 1 89 1, on June 30th of which year he became a Commander, 
and was serving in the " Victoria " when she foundered off Tripoli 
after collision with the " Camperdown " on June 27th, 1893. At the 
time of the catastrophe Commander Jellicoe was suffering from 
Mediterranean fever. He was promoted to Captain on January ist, 
1897. During the Boxer outbreak in 1900 he was Flag-Captain in the 
" Centurion," and took part in Admiral Sir E. H. Seymour's Inter- 
national Expedition to relieve the Pekin Legations. In this Expedition 
he acted as Chief Staff Officer, was wounded, and afterwards received 
the C.B. for his services. 

He was Naval Assistant to the Controller of the Navy from February, 
1902, to August, 1903 ; Captain of the " Drake " from August, 1903, 
to January, 1905 ; and Director of Naval Ordnance and Torpedoes from 




ADMIRAL SIR JOHN R. JELLICOE 



1905 to August, 1907. In the previous March he had been made 
Aide-de-Camp to the King, a post which he held until February 8th, 
1907, when he became an Admiral. From August, 1907, to August, 1908, 
he was Rear-Admiral in the Atlantic Fleet, becoming Third Sea Lord 
and Controller of the Navy at the end of 1908. He commanded the 
Atlantic Fleet in 1910, with the rank of Acting Vice- Admiral, and on 
the occasion of King George V.'s Coronation he was made a K.C.B. 
In 191 1 he commanded the Second Division of the Home Fleet, becoming 
a Vice-Admiral on September i8th of that year. On December 9th, 
191 2, he was appointed Second Sea Lord, 

On the outbreak of war on August 4th, 19 14, he was given Chief 
Command of the Grand Fleet, with the acting rank of Admiral. He 
was in supreme command at the Battle of Jutland. 

In recognition of his services during the war, he received the 
G.C.B. on February 8th, 1915, and an Order in Council, dated November 
loth, 1914, laid down that " Admiral Jellicoe on his promotion to the 
rank of Admiral is to retain seniority as Admiral of August 4th, 1914, 
while holding his present command." 

On May 31st, 19 16, Admiral JelHcoe received the Order of Merit. 

On December 4th, 1916, he became First Sea Lord, the title " Chief 
of Naval Staff" being added on May 31st, 1917. 

Admiral Jellicoe holds the Grand Cross of the Legion of Honour, the 
Russian Order of St. George (Third Class), the Order of the First Class 
of the Rising Sun with Paulounia, and the Grand Cordon of the Order 
of Leopold, also the French and Belgian Croix de Guerre and the Grand 
Cross of the Military Order of Savoy. 

No biographical notice of Sir John Jellicoe would be complete without 
a mention of his father, who was, in his day, a well-known and dis- 
tinguished Captain in the Merchant Service. It is pleasant to remember 
that Captain Jellicoe lived to see his son in command of the Grand Fleet 
during the greatest war in history. This close connection between 
the two branches of sea service is also peculiarly happy and appropriate. 
Admiral Patton, a great-grandfather on his mother's side, was Second 
Sea Lord during the Trafalgar campaign. 



II 



ADMIRAL SIR CECIL BURNEY, 

G.C.M.G., K.C.B. 

A DMIRAL SIR CECIL BURNEY, G.C.M.G, K.C.B. , 

/ % was born in 1858 and received his education at the Royal 

y ^ Naval Academy, Gosport ; he served as a Lieutenant of 

the " Carysfoot " during the Egyptian war, and also in the 

Naval and military operations near Suakin in the Eastern Soudan. For 

these services he received the Egyptian Medal, Khedive's Bronze Star 

and Suakin Clasp. 

As a Lieutenant of the " Hecate" Admiral Burney performed a 
singularly gallant action. His ship having gone outside Plymouth 
Breakwater for gun trials, a carpenter's mate engaged in some work on 
the outside of a turret slipped overboard, striking his head as he fell. 
Lieutenant Burney and Mr. Berridge, gunner, at once plunged to the 
rescue and succeeded in supporting the man till one of the boats, which 
unfortunately were stowed inboard owing to gun practice, could be 
got ready to go to their assistance.' 

In 1906-7 Admiral Burney was Aide-de-Camp to King Edward 
VII. He was Rear-Admiral of Plymouth Home Fleet, 1909-10, a 
member of the Admiralty Submarine Committee, 1910-11 ; Rear- 
Admiral Commanding Fifth Cruiser Squadron, February, 191 1 ; Acting 
Vice-Admiral Commanding Third Battle Squadron (formerly Atlantic 
Fleet), in December of the same year and Vice-Admiral in September, 
1912. 

In April, 1913, he became second in command in the Mediterranean 
and Senior Officer of the International Squadron ordered to blockade 
the coast of Montenegro, and in May of the same year he was appointed 
Chief to the Commission to administer the affairs of Scutari on behalf 
of the Powers. 




ADMIRAL SIR CECIL BURNEY 



Vice-Admiral Burney received the K.C.B. on King George's 
Birthday in 191 3, and the K.C.M.G. in October of the same year, in 
which he also received the command of the Second and Third Fleets. 

At the Battle of Jutland he was second in command of the Grand 
Fleet and was mentioned in despatches. He became a G.C.M.G. and 
Admiral in 1916, being decorated Grand Officer of the Legion of Honour 
for his war services in the same year. In 19 16 he was also appointed 
Second Sea Lord of the Admiralty. He also holds the Order of St. 
Vladimir (Second Class) with swords, the Grand Cross of the Order of 
St. Maurice and St. Lazarus, and the Grand Cordon of the Order of 
the Rising Sun. 

Admiral Burney retired from the post of Second Sea Lord in 
August, 1917, and in October was appointed Commander-in-Chief of 
the East Coast of Scotland in succession to the late Admiral Sir 
Frederick Hamilton. 



Ill 



ADMIRAL SIR CHARLES EDWARD 

MADDEN, K.C.B., K.C.M.G., c.v.o. 

y4 DMIRAL SIR CHARLES EDWARD MADDEN, K.C.B., 

/ ^ K.C.M.G., C.V.O. , became a midshipman in October, 1877. 

/ % As an Acting Sub-Lieutenant of H.M.S. " Ruby," he served 

in the Egyptian War of 1882 and received the Egyptian 

Medal and the Khedive's Bronze Star. He became a Lieutenant on 

July 27th, 1884. 

As a young officer, Admiral Madden specialized in Torpedo work, 
and from 1893 to 1896 was First Lieutenant and Staff Officer of the 
" Vernon " torpedo school ship. 

On June 30th of the latter year he became Commander and was 
promoted Captain on the same day of the same month in 1901. 

From 1902 to 1904 Captain Madden was Flag Captain to Sir 
Wilmot Fawkes, commanding the Cruiser Squadron in H.M.S. " Good 
Hope." 

On February 7th, 1905, Captain Madden was appointed Naval 
Assistant to the Controller of the Navy, becoming on December 20th 
of the following year Naval Assistant to the First Sea Lord. 

On the occasion of King Edward's Review of the Home Fleet in the 
Solent on August 3rd, 1907, he received the C.V.O. 

Nine days later Captain Madden became Captain of H.M.S. 
" Dreadnought," and Chief of Staff, Home Fleet. 

On December ist, 1908, he was appointed Private Secretary to the 
First Lord of the Admiralty, and from January 25th, 1910, to December, 
191 1, was Fourth Sea Lord ; from January, 19 10, to April 12th, 191 1, 




lOEi^^gS^B^ 



ADMIRAL blR CHARLES E. MADDEN 



when he was promoted to Rear- Admiral, Captain Madden was Aide- 
de-Camp to the King. 

From January 5th, 1912, to December nth of the same year, he 
was Rear-Admiral in the First Battle Squadron First Fleet, and from 
December, 19 12, to December, 1913, he commanded the Third Cruiser 
Squadron. In the latter month he assumed the command of the Second 
Cruiser Squadron, which command he held till July, 1914. 

On the outbreak of War Rear-Admiral Madden was appointed 
Chief of the Staff to Admiral Sir John Jellicoe, Commander-in-Chief of 
the Grand Fleet, and was specially granted the acting rank of Vice- 
Admiral on June nth, 1915. He was present at the Battle of Jutland 
and was appointed a K.C.M.G. for his services on that occasion. 

In his despatch. Admiral Sir John Jellicoe said of Vice- Admiral 
Madden, " Throughout a period of twenty-one months of war his 
services have been of inestimable value. His good judgment, his long 
experience in fleets, special gift for organization, and his capacity for 
unlimited work, have all been of the greatest assistance to me, and have 
relieved me of much of the anxiety inseparable from the conduct of the 
Fleet during the war. In the stages leading up to the Fleet action, and 
during and after the action, he was always at hand to assist, and his 
judgment was never at fault. 

" I owe him more than I can say." 

Vice-Admiral Madden was made a K.C.B. on January ist, 1916, a 
K.C.M.G. on May 31st, and confirmed as a Vice-Admiral on June loth 
of the same year. On November 28th, 1916, he was made an Acting- 
Admiral and appointed in command of a portion of the Grand Fleet. 

He is a Commander of the Legion of Honour, a Commander of the 
Military Order of Savoy, holds the Russian Order of St. Anne 
(First Class), with Swords, and Japanese Order of the Rising Sun 
(First Class). 



IV 



REAR-ADMIRAL RICHARD 
FORTESCUE PHILLIMORE, c b , m vo 



REAR-ADMIRAL RICHARD FORTESCUE PHILLIMORE, 
C.B., M.V.O., entered the Navy in 1878, became a 
Lieutenant in 1886 and a Commander in 1899. He was 
Commander of the " Goliath " during the China War of 
1900 (medal), and commanded H.M.S. " Mohawk " during the operations 
in Somaliland in 1904 (medal). 

He commanded the machine guns of the Naval Brigade at the 
capture of Illig. 

On June 30th, 1904, he was promoted to Captain. 

From June, 1912, to the end of August, 1914, he was Chief of Staff 
in the Mediterranean Fleet, holding the rank of Commodore (Second Class) 
from September, 1913. 

On January ist, 1914, he was awarded the C.B. 

When Sir A. Berkeley Milne hauled down his flag. Captain Phillimore 
remained in " Inflexible " as Captain, and commanded her in Admiral 
Sturdee's action off the Falkland Islands, during the bombardment of 
the Chanak Forts on March i8th, 191 5, and during the previous operations 
in the Dardanelles. " Commended for service in Action." 

He was principal Beach- Master at the landing in GallipoH in 1915. 

Mentioned in despatches as having performed " most valuable 
service," and again mentioned for Transport Services. 




REAR-ADMIRAL RICHARD F. PHILLIMORE 



He was attached to the Russian Imperial Headquarters from 
October, 1915, to December, 1916, and holds the Order of St. Vladimir 
(Third Class) with Swords (awarded in November, 191 5) and St. Stanislaus, 
First Class with swords (awarded in December, 1916). 

Aide-de-Camp to the King, 1915-1916. 



V 



VICE-ADMIRAL SIR REGINALD 
H. S. BACON, K.C.B., K.C.V.O., d.s.o. 

VICE-ADMIRAL SIR REGINALD HUGH SPENCER 
BACON, K.C.B., K.C.V.O., D.S.O. , was born in September, 
1863, and entered the Navy in 1877. In 1883 he became 
a Lieutenant (Five Firsts and promotion marks). In 1887 
he joined the " Camperdown " as Torpedo Lieutenant. He was 
awarded a silver medal by the Italian Government for bravery displayed 
in rescuing the crew of the Indian vessel, " Utopia," wrecked in 
Gibraltar Bay in March, 1891. As Commander of the " Theseus," 
he served in the punitive Naval expedition commanded by Rear-Admiral 
Rawson, C.B., and took part in the landing and capture of Benin City 
in February, 1897. It was in connection with this campaign that he 
wrote " Benin, the City of Blood." As Chief of the Intelligence Depart- 
ment, he was mentioned in despatches, received the General African 
Medal, Benin Clasp, and the D.S.O. 

He was the first Inspecting Captain of Submarines, and held the 
appointment from March, 1901, till October, 1904, being in charge of the 
Submarine Service during that time. He was Naval Assistant to the 
First Sea Lord from October, 1904, to December, 1905 ; the first Captain 
of H.M.S. " Dreadnought," 1906-07, and Flag-Captain and Chief of the 
Staff in the Home Fleet in the latter year. From August, 1907, to 
December, 1909, Rear-Admiral Bacon was Director of Naval Ordnance 
and Torpedoes. 

On the occasion of King Edward VI I. 's Review of the Home Fleet 
in the Solent he received the C.V.O., and was Aide-de-Camp to the 
King from 1908 to 1909, during which year he became a Rear-Admiral. 





VICE-ADiMIRAL SIR REGINALD BACON 



Having retired in 1909 to take up the post of Managing Director of 
the Coventry Ordnance Works, he returned to service in January, 1915, 
as Officer Commanding the Siege Brigade, Royal Marines, with temporary 
rank of Colonel Second Commandant. He served with the Expeditionary 
Force in France. Later in the same year Admiral Bacon was placed 
in command of the Dover Patrol, becoming a Vice- Admiral on July 15th, 

1915, and being made a K.C.B. on January ist, 1916. 

On the occasion of the King's visit to his Army in the Field in 
August, 1916, Vice-Admiral Bacon received the K.C.V.O. 

He became a Grand Officer of the Legion of Honour in September, 

1916, and was also created Grand Officer of the Order of Leopold by 
the King of the Belgians in November, 1916. In 1917 he received the 
Belgian Croix de Guerre. 



VI 



VICE-ADMIRAL SIR JOHN MICHAEL 

de ROBECK, k.c.b. 



VICE-ADMIRAL SIR JOHN MICHAEL de ROBECK, 
K.C.B., received his Naval education on board the 
" Britannia," and entered the Royal Navy as a cadet in 1875. 
He became a Lieutenant on September 30th, 1885, a 
Commander on the June 22nd, 1897, and a Captain on January ist, 1902. 

From February 15th, 191 1, to December 21st of the same year he 
was Inspecting Captain of Boys' Training Establishments. On December 
ist, 191 1, he became a Rear-Admiral. From April 8th, 1912, to May ist, 
1914, he was Admiral of Patrols, being the first occupant of that post. 

On the outbreak of war he commanded a Cruiser Force, and on the 
retirement through illness of Vice- Admiral Carden in 1915 he was 
appointed acting Vice-Admiral in Command of the British Eastern 
Mediterranean Squadron at the Dardanelles, March 17th, and directed 
the Naval operations carried out in March and April of that year. It 
was during this period that the Mediterranean Expeditionary Force 
was landed and firmly established on the Gallipoli Peninsula. In his 
despatch published in the " London Gazette," July 6th, 1915, General 
Sir Ian Hamilton said, " Throughout the events I have chronicled, the 
Royal Navy has been father and mother to the Army. Not one of us 
reaUses how much he owes to Vice-Admiral de Robeck." Later in the 
year Sir Ian Hamilton wrote: "The sheet-anchor on which hung the 
whole of these elaborate schemes was the Navy. One tiny flaw in the 
mutual trust and confidence animating the two services would have 
wrecked the whole enterprise. Experts at a distance may have guessed 
as much : it was self-evident to the rawest private on the spot. But 
with men Hke Vice-Admiral de Robeck, Commodore Roger Keyes, 




VICE-ADMIRAL SIR JOHN M. DE ROBECK 



Rear-Admiral Christian, and Captain F. H. Mitchell at our backs, we 
soldiers were secured against any such risk, and it will be seen how 
perfect was the precision the sailors put into their job." 

Vice-Admiral de Robeck also commanded the Naval Forces which 
took part in the evacuation of the GallipoH Peninsula between November 
20th, 1915, and January 9th, 1916. 

He was appointed a K.C.B. on January ist, 1916, in recognition 
of the services he had rendered during the war. 

He is a Grand Officer of the Legion of Honour, and holds the Japanese 
Order of the Sacred Treasure (First Class), and the Grand Cross of 
the Order of the Crown of Italy. 



VII 



VICE-ADMIRAL TREVYLYAN 
DACRES WILLES NAPIER, c b , m v.o 

VICE-ADMIRAL TREVYLYAN DACRES WILLES 
NAPIER, C.B., M.V.O., entered the Navy as a cadet in 
1880, becoming a midshipman two years later. He served 
in the Egyptian War on board the " Minotaur," receiving 
the Egyptian Medal and Khedive's Bronze Star. 

On February 14th, 1887, he was promoted Lieutenant, becoming 
a Commander on January ist, 1899. He served in command of a 
Destroyer Flotilla, and in the Royal Yacht and attained the rank of 
Captain on June 30th, 1903. 

Between 1904 and 1907 he was Flag-Captain to Admiral Sir John 
Durnford on the Cape Station, and from 1907 to 1910 commanded the 
Royal Naval College at Dartmouth, and commanded the " Bellerophon" 
from 1910 to 1912. 

He was appointed Aide-de-Camp to the King on January 14th, 
191 3, and on July ist of the same year was appointed Commodore in 
command of the Second Light Cruiser Squadron, which command he 
held till December ist. 

On October 24th, 191 3, he became a Rear- Admiral. He has served 
afloat in the war from December, 19 14, to the present time, and for his 
services received the C.B. on June 3rd, 1916. He was also mentioned 
in despatches for his services in the Battle of Jutland, in which he 
commanded the Third Light Cruiser .Squadron. The Squadron had 
a difficult role to perform throughout the battle. With the First Light 
, Cruiser Squadron it formed the screen of Sir David Beatty's Battle 




'0 



REAR-ADMIRAL T. D. W. NAPIER 



Cruiser Squadrons at the opening of the battle, and later in the day 
protected the head of the line from torpedo attack by light cruisers and 
destroyers. It attacked the German Battle Cruisers with torpedoes 
and gun fire. " Rear- Admiral Napier deserves great credit for his 
determined and effective attack." 

He holds the Order of St. Stanislaus (First Class), with swords. 



VIII 



REAR-ADMIRAL SIR OSMOND DE 
BEAUVOIR BROCK, kcvo, cb, c.m.g. 



REAR-ADMIRAL SIR OSMOND DE BEAUVOIR BROCK, 
K.C.V.O., C.B., C.M.G. , entered the Navy in the early 
'eighties of the last century, becoming a Midshipman on 
August 15th, 1884. While serving in the " Raleigh " he was 
awarded the Royal Humane Society's Testimonial on Vellum for having 
jumped overboard at Simon's Bay to the assistance of John Duggan, 
stoker. 

He was promoted to Lieutenant on February 14th, 1889, having 
passed the examination with five First Class Certificates, and later 
specialised in Gunnery. He was promoted to Commander on January 
ist, 1900, and on January ist, 1904, he became a Captain. In 1905 
he was Flag Captain to Lord Charles Beresford, and in November, 1910, 
was appointed Assistant Director of Naval Mobilisation. From January 
8th, 1912, to August ist, 1912, he acted as Assistant Director, 
Mobilisation Division, Admiralty War Staff. 

During the action in Heligoland Bight on August 28th, 1914, 
Captain Brock commanded the " Princess Royal," and in the action off 
the Dogger Bank, January 24th, 1915, he commanded the same ship. 
When Sir David Beatty's flagship " Lion " was damaged he transferred 
his flag to the destroyer "Attack," and later the "Princess Royal." 
For his services Captain Brock was mentioned in despatches and 
awarded the CB. He commanded a Battle Cruiser Squadron in the 
Battle of Jutland, was again mentioned in despatches and awarded 
the C.M.G. It was on these Battle Cruiser Squadrons, as Sir John 
Jellicoe remarked, that the brunt of the fighting fell, and Sir David 




REAR-ADMIRAL SIR OSMUND DE B. BROCK 



Beatty reported the " able support " rendered him in the battle by 
their commanders. 

He was Aide-de-Camp to the King from October 24th, 191 3, to 
March 5th, 1915, when he became a Rear-Admiral. 



IX 



REAR-ADMIRAL LIONEL HALSEY, 

C.B, C.M.G. 

REAR-ADMIRAL LIONEL HALSEY, C.B., C.M.G., 
Third Sea Lord, was born in 1872, and joined H.M.S. 
" Britannia " in 1885. As a Naval Cadet he served in the 
^" Agincourt," Flag-ship of Rear- Admiral the Hon. Edmund 
R. Fremantle, then second in command of the Channel Squadron. 
Becoming a Sub-Lieutenant in 189 1, he subsequently served as Lieutenant 
and Flag-Lieutenant in several different ships. 

During the South African War he took part in the defence of 
Ladysmith, where he had charge of the 4.7 gun in Princess Victoria 
Battery at Cove Hill Redoubt. He was also executive Officer to Captain 
Lambton (now Admiral Sir Hedworth Meux) towards the end of the 
siege, besides taking charge of all the Naval guns. For his services 
in this connection he was mentioned in despatches. 

On January ist, 1901, he was specially promoted to Commander. 
In 1912 he became Captain of the " New Zealand," the first capital 
ship built at the charge of a Dominion Government, In the following 
year Captain Halsey received the C.M.G. From September, 1914, till 
he became Rear- Admiral in April, 1917, he was Aide-de-Camp to the 
King. 

Captain Halsey was mentioned in despatches for his services in the 
actions at Heligoland and the Dogger Bank. He became Captain of 
the Fleet and Commodore, First Class, in 1915. After the Battle of 
Jutland, Admiral Jellicoe wrote as follows : — " My special thanks are 
due to Commodore Lionel Halsey, C.M.G., the Captain of the Fleet, 
who also assists me in the working of the Fleet at sea, and to whose good 
organization is largely due the rapidity with which the Fleet was 




REAR-ADMIRAL L. HALSEY 



fuelled and replenished with ammunition on return to its bases. He 
was of much assistance to me during the action." 

Commodore Halsey received the C.B. on June 3rd, 19 16, becoming 
Fourth Sea Lord in December of the same year, and Third Sea Lord 
in May, 1917. He is a Commander of the Legion of Honour, and holds 
the Russian Order of St. Vladimir (Third Class). 



X 



VICE-ADMIRAL SIR WILLIAM C. 
PAKENHAM, k.c.b., k.c.v.o. 



VICE-ADMIRAL SIR WILLIAM CHRISTOPHER 
PAKENHAM, K.C.B, K.C.V.O., was born in July, 1861, 
the second son of the late Rear-Admiral the Hon. Thomas 
Alexander Pakenham. In his early days in the Royal Navy 
he made a reputation as a swimmer, assisting in the rescue of a seaman 
who fell overboard at Larnaca, Cyprus, and some years later 
endeavouring to save a man who fell from the foreyard of the 
" Calypso " during drill at Kiel. He became a Captain on June 
30th, 1903, and from April, 1904, to May, 1906, he was Naval Attache 
at Tokyo. 

He became a C.B. in July, 1905, and received the Order of the 
Rising Sun (Second Class) from H.I.M. the Emperor of Japan in 1906. 
In July, 1907, when in command of the " Antrim," escorting King 
Edward to Ireland, he was awarded the M.V.O. 

From December, 191 1, to December, 1913, he was a Lord Com- 
missioner of the Admiralty. In June, 1913, he became Rear-Admiral, 
and in December was appointed to command the Third Cruiser Squadron. 

Rear-Admiral Pakenham was present at the Battle of Jutland and 
received a K.C.B. on May 31st, 1916, for his services on that occasion. 

When Admiral Sir David Beatty was given the command of the 
Grand Fleet in succession to Admiral Sir John JelUcoe in November, 
1 9 16, Admiral Pakenham was selected to assume the command of the 
Battle Cruiser Force, and was promoted to Acting Vice- Admiral on 
June 19th, 1917. 




VICE-ADMIRAL SIR WILLIAM PAKENHAM 



On the occasion of the visit of H.M. King George to the Fleet in 
July, 1917, Admiral Pakenham was made a K.C.V.O. 

Vice-Admiral Pakenham has received the Russian Order of St. 
Stanislaus (Second Class), and also an Imperial Gift, graciously conferred 
by H.I.M. the Emperor of Japan. 



XI 



COMMODORE GODFREY M. PAINE, 

C.B., M.V.O. 



C 



OMMODORE GODFREY MARSHALL PAINE, C.B., 
M.V.O. , was born in 1871 and entered the Navy in 1885, 
becoming a Lieutenant on August 23rd, 1893, after service 
in the Roval Yacht. 



On December 31st, 1903, he became a Commander, and was in the 
" Renown " during the voyage of the Prince and Princess of Wales to 
India, October, 1905, to May, 1906. On June 30th, 1907, he became 
a Captain. From June, 1909, to June, 191 1, he commanded the Third 
Torpedo Boat Destroyer Flotilla. 

From August, 191 1, to May, 1912, he was Captain of H.M.S. 
" Actason," the Torpedo School Ship at Sheerness, then the Head- 
quarters of the infant Naval Air Service. He gained the pilot's 
certificate of the Royal Aero Club in May, 1912, flying a Short biplane, 
and before the end of the month became first Commandant of the Central 
Flying School, Salisbury Plain. 

This School, inaugurated in 1912, was open to both Naval and 
Military aviators, and was, in consequence, an institution demanding 
special qualifications from the Officer in command. The new experiment 
proved a complete success under Captain Paine. 

In 191 5 Captain Paine became a Commodore (First Class), and in 
1917 he was appointed Director of Naval Air Service and Fifth Sea 
Lord. The skill, versatility and usefulness of the Naval Air Service 
have rivalled those of the military airmen. The naval airmen have 
had to discover their true role and make their traditions. When their 




COMMODORE G. M. PAINE 



record can be known the success of Commodore Paine will be fully 
appreciated. He received a C.B. on January ist, 1914. He is also 
a Commander of the Legion of Honour. 



XII 



COMMODORE SIR REGINALD YORKE 
TYRWHITT, K C.B., d.s.o 

COMMODORE (First Class) SIR REGINALD YORKE 
TYRWHITT, K.C.B., D.S.O. , was born in 1870 and 
entered the " Britannia " as a cadet in 1885, becoming a 
Lieutenant on August 25th, 1892. 

As Lieutenant of H.M.S. " Cleopatra " in 1894 he was one of 
a landing party, composed of seamen and marines, under Lieutenant 
Colmore, who went to protect the inhabitants of Bluefields, Nicaragua. 
This expedition saved the lives of the inhabitants, who expressed their 
gratitude in a letter of thanks. 

Having become a Captain on June 30th, 1908, Captain Tyrwhitt 
commanded the Second Flotilla from August, 1912, to November, 1913, 
when he was appointed Captain of the First Fleet Flotillas and was 
advanced to the rank of Commodore (Second Class), in April, 19 14. 

At the outbreak of war. Commodore Tyrwhitt was in command of 
the Harwich Force consisting of the First, Second, and Tenth Flotillas. 
He took part in the actions in the Heligoland Bight and off the Dogger 
Bank and in many minor actions in 1914-17. 

For his services in the action in the Heligoland Bight he was awarded 
the C.B. The " London Gazette " stated that his attack was delivered 
with great skill and gallantry. Commodore Tyrwhitt also received 
the thanks of the Admiralty for the manner in which he lead his forces. 

In December, 1914, he was advanced to Commodore (First Class). 
In June, 1916, he received the D.S.O. , and in April, I9i7,he was appointed 
A.D.C. to the King, and for services rendered during the War received 
the K.C.B. on July 25th, 1917. 

Commodore Tyrwhitt is a Commander of the Legion of Honour 
and Chevalier of the Military Order of Savoy. 




COMMODORE SIR REGINALD Y. TYRWHITT 



The Western Front 

Drawings by MUIRHEAD BONE 

" They illustrate admirably the daily life of the troops under my command." 

— F.M. Sir Douglas Haig, K.T. 

In Monthly Parts, Price 2- net. Parts I. — V. in Volume form, with extra matter, 15/- net. 

Parts VI. — X. in Volume form, with extra matter, 15/- net. 



Mr. Muirhead Bone's drawings are reproduced in the following form, apart 
from " The Western Front " publication : — 

WAR DRAWINGS 

Size 20 by 15 inches. Ten plates in each part, 10/6 net. 

MUNITION DRAWINGS 

Size 31! by 22 inches. Six plates in portfolio, 20/- net. 

WITH THE GRAND FLEET 

Size 31^ by 22 inches. Six plates in portfolio, 20/- net. 

" TANKS " 

Size 28 by 2o| inches. Single plate, 5/- net. 



BRITISH ARTISTS AT 
THE FRONT 

Continuation of "The Western Front." 

The sequel to the monthly publication illustrated by Mr. Muirhead Bone will 
be issued under the title of " British Artists at the Front." 

In size, quality of paper and style this publication will retain the characteristics 
of its predecessor. 

The illustrations will be in colours, and will be provided by various artists who 
have been given facilities to make records of the War. 



Ti'.,..tu.^- ».„,t;«..io,.c r^f tkig publication will be sent on appUcation to "Country Life," Ltd., 

ivistock Street, Covent Garden, London, W.C. 2. 



CONTENTS 



INTRODUCTION 

I.— JELLICOE, ADMIRAL SIR JOHN R., g.c.b., om., g.c.v.o. 
II.— BURNEY, ADMIRAL SIR CECIL, g.c.m.g., k.c.b., d.s.o. 
III.— -MADDEN, ADMIRAL SIR C. E., k.c.b., k.c.m.g., c.v.o. 
IV.— PHILLIMORE, REAR-ADMIRAL R. F., c.b., m.v.o. 

v.— BACON, VICE-ADMIRAL SIR R. H. S., k.c.b., k.c.v.o., d.s.o. 
VI.— DE ROBECK, VICE-ADMIRAL SIR J. M., k.c.b. 
VII.— NAPIER, VICE-ADMIRAL T. D. W., c.b., m.v.o. 
VIII.— BROCK, REAR-ADMIRAL SIR OSMOND de B., k.c.v.o., c.b., c.m.g. 
IX.— HALSEY, REAR-ADMIRAL LIONEL, c.b., c.m.g. 
X.— PAKENHAM, VICE-ADMIRAL SIR W. C, k.c.b., k.c.v.o. 
XL— PAINE, COMMODORE GODFREY M., c.b., m.v.o. 
XIL— TYRWHITT, COMMODORE SIR R. Y., k.c.b., d.s.o. 



Uniform with this publication. 

Generals of the British 

Army 

PORTRAITS BY FRANCIS DODD 

INTRODUCTION 

I.— HAIG, FIELD MARSHAL SIR DOUGLAS, k.t., g.c.b., G.av.o., k.c.i.b., H.IP.C. 
II.— PLUMER, GENERAL SIR H. C. O., g.c.m.g., g.c.v.o., k.c.b., H.D.C. 
III.— RAWLINSON, GENERAL SIR H. S., Bart., g.c.v.o., k.c.b., k.c.v.o. 
IV.— GOUGH, GENERAL SIR H. De La POER, k.c.b., k.c.v.o. 
v.— ALLENBY, GENERAL SIR E. H., k.c.b. 
VI.— HORNE, GENERAL SIR H. S., k.c.b. 

VII.— BIRDWOOD, LIEUT.-GEN. SIR W. R., k.c.b., k.c.s.i., k.c.m.g., c.i.e., d.s.o. 
VIII.— BYNG, GENERAL THE HON. SIR J. H. G., k.c.b., k.c.m.g., m.v.o. 
IX.— CONGREVE, LIEUT.-GEN. SIR W. N., ID.d., k.c.b., m.v.o. 
X.— HALDANE, LIEUT.-GEN. J. A. L., c.b., d.s.o. 
XL— WATTS, LIEUT.-GEN. H. E., c.b., c.m.g. 
XIL— SMUTS, LIEUT.-GEN. THE RT. HON. JAN C, p.c, k.c, m.l.a. 

Hudson & Keabns, Ltd., Priaters, Hatfield Street, Lonuon, S.E. l. 





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